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What is Ischemic Conditioning?

Initiating episodes of transient ischemia and reperfusion to a tissue or organ to elicit a physiologic, protective response that markedly enhances the ability of that tissue to withstand subsequent injury or stressors.

Ischemic Conditioning Milestones

1986 – 1st report of ischemic preconditioning: Charles Murry (Circulation 74: 1124-1136, 1986)

1993 – Remote ischemic pre-conditioning reported: Robert Kloner (Circulation 1993;87:893-99)

1997 – Remote ischemic pre-conditioning using peripheral muscle:  Robert Kloner (Circulation 1997;96:1641-1646)

2006 – 1st Human use in pediatric cardiac surg: Andrew Redington: (J Am Coll Cardiol, 2006; 47:2277-2282)

2007 – Ischemic pre-conditioning effective in humans CABG: Derek Hausenloy (Lancet 2007: 370; 575)

2007 – IC Therapeutics, Inc. founded: Morteza Naghavi

2007-2008 - IC Therapeutics patented:

     - ischemic conditioning based on ischemia monitoring
     - repeated ischemic conditioning for chronic conditions such as heart failure, diabetic vasculopathy, and hypertension.

     - Ischemic conditioning to imporve endurance and athletic performance

2009 – Pre-conditioning effective in PCI : Stephen Hoole (Circulation 2009;119:820-827)

2009 - 2013 – Over 100 new ischemic conditioning clinical trials posted on coverage a wide area of internal medicine and surgical applications (e.g. Cardiovascular, kidney and liver protection, plastic surgery, ...)

2010 – Peri-conditioning in STEMI effective (w/morphine): Rentoukas (JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2010 Jan; 3(1):49-55)

2010 – Athletic performance enhancement: Hopman; Redington (

2011 - 2012 – Two studies published on ICT for improving athletic endurance 

2013 – A large trial on ICT for peri-PCI published in Europe with promising results




Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is a therapeutic strategy for protecting organs or tissue against the detrimental effects of acute ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). It describes an endogenous phenomenon in which the application of one or more brief cycles of non-lethal ischemia and reperfusion to an organ or tissue protects a remote organ or tissue from a sustained episode of lethal IRI.


Source: Lim SY, Hausenloy DJ. Front Physiol. 2012;3:27. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00027. Epub 2012 Feb 20.
Remote ischemic conditioning: from bench to bedside.